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Ignatian Service 

Gratitude and Love in Action 


BX3701 .S88 

Current Periodicals 

40/2 • SUMMER 2008 


The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the United 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice of Jesuits, 
especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the members of the provinces 
through its publication, Studies IN THE Spirituality OF Jesuits. This is done in the spirit of 
Vatican II's recommendation that religious institutes recapture the original inspiration of their 
founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. The Seminar welcomes reactions or 
comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits of the Unit- 
ed States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other regions, to other priests, 
religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the journal, while meant especially for Amer- 
ican Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. Others who may find it helpful are cordially welcome to 
make use of it. 


Richard A. Blake, S. J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of STUDIES; he teaches film studies 

at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (2002). 
James T. Bretzke, S.J., teaches theology at the University of San Francisco, San Francisco, Cal. 

Gerald T. Cobb, S.J., teaches English at Seattle University, Seattle, Wash. (2007) 
Patrick J. Howell, S.J., is vice-president for Mission and Ministry at Seattle University, Seattle, 

Wash. (2006) 
Mark S. Massa, S.J., teaches theology and is director of the American Catholic Studies Program 

at Fordham University, Bronx, N. Y. (2006) 
Thomas Massaro, S.J., teaches moral theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, Cambridge, 

Mass. (2006) 
Gerald L. McKevitt, S.J., teaches history at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, Cal. (2005) 
Philip J. Rosato, S.J., is senior fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center, Washington, D.C. 

Thomas J. Scirghi, S.J., teaches liturgy at the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, Berkeley, 

Cal. (2007) 
Thomas Worcester, S.J., teaches history at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass. 

Michael A. Zampelli, S.J., teaches theater and dance at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, Cal. 


The opinions expressed in Studies are those of the individual authors thereof. Parentheses des- 
ignate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2008 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 

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Ignatian Service 

Gratitude and Love in Action 

Wilkie Au 


40/2 • SUMMER 2008 

the first word . . . 

1 he night of the Baldwin Awards functions as a rite of spring here at Bos- 
ton College. It's a five-year-old tradition that provides recognition for the 
best films made by students over the past year. Each winner receives a 
"Baldwin," a metal replica of the Boston College eagle, which some cus- 
todians of B.C. lore claim was once nicknamed "Baldwin," perhaps as a 
bit of wordplay on "bald eagle," or "bald one." (It would be interesting 
to find out if the same name was applied to some of the less abundantly 
feathered fathers on the faculty.) It's an open competition. Some entries 
originate in projects for film making and video classes, but others fly in 
over the transom from My Space veterans who have shot and edited films 
with their own begged, borrowed, or stolen equipment. The field is nar- 
rowed to twenty-five finalists, most of which are entered in several catego- 
ries, just like the Academy Awards competition. 

The ceremony is a bit different from the usual presentation of academic 
honors. "Pomp and Circumstances" and academic regalia have no place in the 
proceedings. Baldwin night involves a delicious parody of the Oscar ceremo- 
nies, which precede us by a few weeks. If weather permits — and this is New 
England, not southern California — we provide searchlights and roll out a red 
carpet in front of the building. Several of the students and faculty appear in 
tuxedos. (Not willing to spend forty dollars for a black bow tie to wear once a 
year, I squeezed into my starchiest pontiff four clerical collar, and explained the 
odd outfit as a hip variation of the classical tux that Jon Stewart would envy.) 
Some of the women take their prom gowns out of tissue paper for the occa- 
sion. Since they have to climb several steps to the stage, many of the jeans and 
sneaker set seem to find the floor-length dresses and heels bit of a challenge, 
but we got through the night with no major mishaps. Student comedy clubs 
write goofy banter and presentation speeches with the clear intention of embar- 
rassing the faculty, fellow students, and administrators who serve as present- 
ers. Accompanied by drum roll, cymbal, and a chorus of groans, these remarks 
match the inanity of the real thing, dumb joke for dumb joke. 

At some time in the evening, the froth and ballyhoo of the Hollywood 
version is interrupted by some somber message about the achievements and 
promise of "the industry," as they call it. Some teetering titan, with black 
rimmed glasses and gray mustache, is led out by starlets one-third his age to 
enunciate the requisite pomposities. Not to be outdone, the Baldwin commit- 
tee gave me five whole minutes maximum (but no starlets) to summarize my 
experience of thirty-five years of film reviewing and offer a few reflections on 


the future for the next generation of film makers. They demanded a few self- 
deprecating jokes, too. All that in five minutes. 

It was a bad-news, good-news presentation, as one might expect. First 
the bad news. Reviewing can be a discouraging business, as week after week 
passes with few new releases worth the ink to review. The dry spells have 
grown longer over the past few years, since the industry has succumbed to 
the international blockbuster syndrome, It relies more and more on multimil- 
lion-dollar action-adventure films with a minimum of dialogue and charac- 
ter complexity. These are designed to appeal as much to audiences speaking 
Urdu, Farsi, or Hindi as they are to thirteen-year-old American computer- 
game addicts wanting to get away from the house and their parents for a few 
hours. The technology has exploded, but it has exacted a terrible cost from 
quality. Why waste time and money with the script when the techies can sit 
at their monitors and generate explosions, monsters, and bodily mutilation at 
a fraction of the cost? Why create genuine spectacle, when so many people 
prefer to watch their movies on a television screen or their own private lap- 
top. Soon weTl be streaming full length films into cell phones. Somehow the 
idea of seeing Lawrence of Arabia on a two-inch screen strikes me as desecra- 
tion, but I too am a creature of my age. For another generation, it will be per- 
fectly normal, alas and weylaway. 

Of course a bit of grandfatherly exhortation to young filmmakers was 
lurking under the surface of my comments. The torpedoes were benign, how- 
ever, and of course there was no way to see if any had struck target. This was 
after all a celebration, not an admonition. Here is the parallel. The commer- 
cial industry is not alone in risking the loss of its soul. All this new equip- 
ment has made it too easy for students to make films. After all, third graders 
are now able to make // films ,, in their bedrooms and post them on the web. 
With this experience as background, many young film students become im- 
patient with pre-production. They want to get at the cameras, shoot, and feed 
their footage into the computer for editing. The requirement of scripting, site- 
scouting, shot-lists and the like come as an unwelcome shock, mere annoy- 
ances that they want to get through as quickly as possible in order to get to 
the hardware and "real" film making. In such a hurried atmosphere having, 
like, something to say becomes, like, far less important than, like, saying it. 

In keeping with imperatives of Hollywood movies, however, this sto- 
ry has to have a happy ending. Here's the annual scenario. After a long arid 
spell of moronic teenpix, my letter of resignation as reviewer sits on the desk 
waiting for a stamp. Inspirational music on the sound track. A ray of light 
bursts through a window and falls on the keyboard of my computer. As the 
leaves begin to fall, along with snowflakes in New England, rumors of an 
abundant harvest changes one's perspective. During this season of mists and 
mellow fruitfulness the studios release their prestige product in the hope of 
getting good reviews and Oscar nominations. This is the season of Eden- 
ic bliss for film critics. Just look at the nominees that hit the multiplexes last 
fall. In No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood we had two thoughtful 


meditations on the nature of evil. In both instances, destructive greed leads to 
self-annihilation. Both films were set in the American West. By tapping into 
the tradition of the Western film, they presented chilling reflections on Ameri- 
can expansionism, past and present. Michael Clayton brought the question of 
greed into the corporate boardroom, with much the same disturbing, honest 

Atonement, an adaptation of Ian MacEwan's majestic novel, brought not 
only an examination of love and betrayal, but it subtly probed the two-edged 
sword of imagination in a world enthralled by the delusion of scientific truth 
in human relationships. Once again proving that comedy is serious business, 
Juno offered a whimsical but insightful story of family relationships that shift 
after the discovery of an unplanned teenage pregnancy. At the other end of 
the life cycle, Away from Her gave an honest portrait of a family facing the loss 
of a loved one through Alzheimer's syndrome. This was not a "Best Picture" 
nominee like the others, but Julie Christie's nomination for best actress took 
me back to her Lara in Dr. Zhivago and Diana in Darling, both from 1965. It 
was doubly poignant, like meeting an old friend remembered as an embodi- 
ment of youthful loveliness and now devastated by adumbrations of our com- 
mon mortality. 

The conclusion to be drawn from all of this is that serious artists still 
make films that count and still challenge their audiences to think and feel. 
Even with that serious intent they are still able to make films that people 
want to see and celebrate. Let's give Hollywood its night to preen. On other 
nights during the year it can pander to the worst in its least-common-denomi- 
nator audiences and sell tickets in multiplexes and shopping malls. On Oscar 
night, it lifts its head a bit above the accountants' bottom line, if only for a few 
hours, and for that we should all be grateful. 

I felt that way about Baldwin night, too. Most student films are dread- 
ful beer-and-blood recreations of Animal House. Yet several of the twenty- 
five student films that made it through the elimination process provoked 
that same sense of satisfaction and ultimately gratitude that one might ex- 
perience in looking over the Oscar finalists. It was really a splendid body of 
work. One student put together some grant money, took a film crew to India 
and did a documentary on health care in rural villages. Another stayed closer 
to home and through a series of interviews with dining-service employees, 
work-study students and full-time staff alike, provided a snapshot of those 
subtle economic and social class distinctions that influence behavior patterns. 
This effort took the "Best Film" award. Another, written and directed by an 
undergraduate, was social satire filmed in post-Soviet and very materialis- 
tic Russia with the help of a professional television crew. One student took a 
nostalgic look at the big-budget mgm musicals of an earlier era. He got a com- 
position student from a music conservatory in the area to do an original score, 
another to do choreography, and coaxed creditable performances out of local 
singers and dancers. A campus comedy troupe filmed its own incisive parody 
of The Da Vinci Code, and a more serious-minded team did a film noir, with an 


abundance of murders staged in parking lots and barren beaches. It was quite 
a change from the "fun in the dorms" types of home movies that one often as- 
sociates with college film making. 

This exercise of grandfatherly pride is not boasting, since I have abso- 
lutely nothing to do with the production part of the film program. Still, those 
of us who handle the more academic side of the department found ourselves 
energized by the evening. It's something we need from time to time. Espe- 
cially as the semester draws to a close, we can feel the inevitable frustration 
of reading student papers and discovering to our horror that we hadn't made 
points of history and criticism as clearly as we had believed. Fatigue leads to 
frustration and then to negativity. Why do they keep making the same mis- 
takes? What to do? Blame yourself? Try harder? Put more quizzes and pa- 
pers into the syllabus? Make more hysterical comments in the margins? Any 
of those would simply repeat the cycle of greater effort and greater recogni- 
tion of inadequacy, on our part as much as our students'. 

It seems so much healthier to draw renewed enthusiasm from a sense 
of gratitude for demonstrated achievements, even though the results arise 
from the talents of others. I can be reinvigorated simply by the awareness 
that the system works, in its own way, whether I make a contribution or not. 
Put concretely, many of our production majors bristle under the history and 
criticism courses they are required to take, but perhaps, in some mysterious 
way, the result of taking them is better film makers. It's vicarious satisfac- 
tion, but satisfaction nonetheless. Satisfaction brings gratitude and gratitude 
renews one's energies. 

To come to think about it, the experience of Baldwin night might be 
taken as a kind of paradigm for Jesuit life. In the optimism / pessimism scale 
Jesuits run the gamut. Some see the glass as half empty some of the time or 
most of the time. That is, when they don't see the glass as totally empty all 
the time. If one believes that personal effort can make up for past failures, to 
say nothing of the deficiencies of superiors and administrators, then the result 
is overwork, frustration with failure, a sense of hopelessness and finally a sur- 
render to mediocrity. One need not be a charter member of the Pollyanna so- 
dality to realize that an occasional full glass of optimism can lead to satisfac- 
tion, gratitude for being part of the enterprise, and renewed enthusiasm for 
the challenges to come. 

These are rather mundane, common-sense observations, but that have 
implications that extend far beyond Baldwin awards and job satisfaction. 
Wilkie Au, the author of this issue of Studies, directs our attention to gratitude 
within the context of the Spiritual Exercises, and consequently at the heart of 
Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit ministry. We are fortunate indeed to be able 
to draw from his vast experience as a spiritual director to gain a refreshing in- 
sight into this core idea of Ignatius. 

Richard A. Blake, S.J. 




Introduction: Leisure and the Magis 1 

Gratitude: The Echo of Grace 4 

I. The Contemplatio as a Recapitulation 5 

Gratitude for the Graces Received 7 

Gateways to Gratitude 8 

The Pedagogy of Ignatius 9 

II. A Literary Inclusion for Gratitude and Service 13 

Desired into Being, Sustained by Love 14 

III. Contemplatives Even in Action 17 

A Mysticism of Service 19 

IV. Obstacles to Contemplative Action 22 

Codependence as Apparent Good 24 

Perfectionism and Religious Rhetoric 27 

Conclusion: An Instrument in God's Hand 31 


Wilkie Au, M.Div, Ph.D, a graduate of the University of California, 
Santa Barbara, and the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, is pro- 
fessor of theological studies at Loyola Marymount University where 
he teaches in the area of spirituality and coordinates the graduate 
concentration in spiritual direction. During his years in the Society, 
he served as Director of Novices in California and Director of the 
Jesuit Collegiate Program. He is a former Associate Editor o/Human 
Development and currently serves on the Editorial Review Panel of 
Presence: An International Journal of Spiritual Direction. His By Way 
of the Heart: Toward a Holistic Christian Spirituality won the 1990 
Book Award of the College Theology Society and his Enduring Heart: 
Spirituality for the Long Haul won an award from the Catholic Press 
Association of the United States and Canada in 2001 . With Noreen 
Cannon Au, he has co-authored Urgings of the Heart: A Spirituality of 
Integration and The Discerning Heart: Exploring the Christian Path, 
which was awarded first place in the category of pastoral ministry by 
the Catholic Press Association in 2007. 


Ignatian Service 

Gratitude and Love in Action 

Faced with the self-generated demands of the ministry, Jesu- 
its and their companions face the constant risk of placing un- 
realistic expectations on themselves. Generosity can flow into 
frustration, guilt, and a sense of inadequacy. Contemplat- 
ing God's gifts in an Ignatian spirit of gratitude provides a 
healthy counterbalance. So motivated, one embraces apostol- 
ic works as an instrument of God's own activity in the world 
rather than as a laborer from whom too much is expected. 

In June 2006 I had the privilege of participating in a conference on 
"The Vocation of the Teacher in the Ignatian Tradition" that was held 
at the Centre Sevres, Paris. Sponsored by John Carroll University, 
the meeting brought together delegations from twenty-one Jesuit univer- 
sities, the two U.S. Jesuit schools of theology, and the Association of Je- 
suit Colleges and Universities (ajcu). One of the highlights of the confer- 
ence was hearing lay colleagues give voice to their strong support and 
solidarity with Jesuits in pursuing the Ignatian mission of forming men 
and women for others. As they cited Ignatian documents in their call for 
renewed action, it was clear to me that the Ignatian vision continues to 
inspire dedication and service. However, a consistent concern surfaced 
when lay people questioned how they might embrace a passionate com- 
mitment to service without becoming overworked and fragmented. In- 
spired to greater service in their work at the university, they wondered 
what more they could realistically do when they so often feel buffeted 
by the demands of teaching, research, and publishing. Their bottom-line 
concern was aptly summarized by one participant who said, "I'd like to 
do more to contribute to the university's commitment to the service of 

2 * Wilkie Au 

faith and the promotion of justice, but how do I keep from getting over- 
extended and being burned out, when there's so much to do?" Already 
feeling stretched by the pressures of work and family life, they wanted 
to know how they could live out the Ignatian vision in a viable and in- 
tegrated way. 

The dialogue among conference participants eventually made 
clear that Jesuits and their lay colleagues face the same challenge — 
how to strike a vibrant balance between work and leisure, time for oth- 
ers and time for self. This essay reflects my desire to continue the con- 
versation that took place in Paris by articulating an understanding of 
Ignatian service that simultaneously inspires commitment and fosters 
balance in ministry. It is my hope that this essay can serve as a useful 
resource in the ongoing dialogue regarding Jesuit-lay collaboration. 

Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, then superior general of the Society of Je- 
sus, notes that Ignatius possesses "a certain preference for comparative 
adverbs: the whole corpus of Ignatian spirituality seems to be summed 
up in the 'greater/ the mdslmagis." 1 Ignatius' s emphasis on the compar- 
ative, however, was not intended to inspire ministers to strain beyond 
their human limitations, but to open them to a greater availability to 
^ ^ — collaborate with Christ. As 
At first glance, to speak of Father Kolvenbach puts it, "By 
gratitude as a defining element means of these adverbial con- 
of Ignatian spirituality may structions, the text is emphat- 
seem like belaboring the obvious. ically open to a synergy with 
Yet, the centrality of gratitude this God who never rests, but 
has received scant attention in labors and works in all created 
published form. things on the face of the earth 
[236]" (116). 2 When not under- 
stood in the context of Igna- 
tius' s theology of ministry, these comparative adverbs are easily mis- 
understood to mean that we should never be satisfied with what we 
have accomplished, that we should always be striving for more. Such a 
distorted view taints Ignatian spirituality with a perfectionistic driven- 
ness that is both unhealthy and unattractive. When used uncritically to 

1 Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., "Linguistic Interpretation of the Exercises," in The 
Road from La Storta: Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., on Ignatian Spirituality (St. Louis: The In- 
stitute of Jesuit Sources, 2000), 116. 

2 Page references to the last-cited source are included in the text, enclosed in pa- 
rentheses. This is equivalent to writing "ibid.," followed by the page reference. 

Ignatian Service * 

exhort people to a commitment to Ignatian service, it is no wonder that 
such terms as "magis" and "ad major em Dei gloriam" can come across as 
unreasonably demanding. The last section of this essay addresses con- 
crete problems such as perfectionism, overwork, and codependency — 
struggles that Jesuits and their lay colleagues often face when relentless 
demands are placed on them from an incorrect understanding of Igna- 
tius' s view of ministry. 

Given the U.S. Assistancy's priority on forming lay partners as 
part of its Strategic Discernment Process, it seems important and timely 
that Jesuits are able to articulate the Ignatian vision to their non-Jesuit 
partners in an attractive and realistic way. On the one hand, Ignatian 
service continues to be a reliable path to spiritual transformation, as it 
has been for centuries, because it emanates from an attitude towards life 
that is shaped by gratitude and love. On the other hand, contemporary 
followers of the Ignatian path need to be wary of counterfeit forms of 
Ignatian service that result in joyless work, driven by an excessive sense 
of responsibility and inability to set healthy limits — modern examples 
of Ignatius' s notion of a temptation of an apparent good, or evil under 
the guise of good. Clarifying the contours of an Ignatian spirituality of 
ministry can help lay partners share more deeply in the wisdom of Ig- 
natius, as well as help Jesuits to prudently focus their energy at a time 
of shrinking manpower. 

In Ignatian spirituality, service takes on great significance because 
it is seen as a way of collaborating with God. In this joint effort, minis- 
ters are most united to Christ when their actions issue forth from "a pure 
intention of the divine service/' 3 Thus, Ignatius encourages an ongoing 
purification of our motives for serving others. Allowing for develop- 
mental growth, he states at the end of the Spiritual Exercises that, while 
a healthy fear can be useful in keeping a person from deadly sin, "the 
zealous service of God our Lord out of pure love should be esteemed 
above all." 4 While human action generally arises from many levels of 
motivation — conscious and unconscious — the ideal is that our works of 

3 The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, translated, with an Introduction and a 
Commentary by George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis, Mo.: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 
1970), no. 813. Subsequent references to the Constitutions will be placed in the text it- 
self, enclosed in parentheses and preceded by Cons., followed by the boldface marginal 
number of the passage 

4 Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, Based on Studies 
in the Language of the Autograph, translated by Louis J. Puhl, S.J. (Chicago: Loyola Univer- 
sity Press, 1951), no. 370. Subsequent references to the Spiritual Exercises will be placed 

4 * Wilkie Au 

service and justice originate more and more from feelings of gratitude 
and love, rather than from deficient motives such as fear of punishment, 
desire for reward, self-aggrandizement, guilt, and compulsion. There- 
fore, our commitment to service and the promotion of justice must, as 
Jesuit John J. English states, "take place in the context of God's good- 
ness . . . forgiving love . . . concern for [humankind] and the support 
[God] gives to persons who . . . desire social justice and peace/' 5 My 
thesis is that gratitude constitutes a leitmotif of the Spiritual Exercises 
and that the basic dynamic by which Ignatius leads people to a commit- 
ment to service originates with gratitude. 

Gratitude: The Echo of Grace 

More than a transient and ephemeral feeling, gratitude for Igna- 
tius is an abiding vision of thankfulness that recognizes the gift-nature 
of everything. The late moral theologian William C. Spohn captures 
this Ignatian understanding of gratitude when he speaks of gratitude as 
"the echo of grace." Gratitude reverberates in our hearts when the gra- 
tuity of everything dawns on us. In a poignant account of his experi- 
ence of imminent death, Spohn writes, "The last six months have been 
nothing like I feared the encounter with death would be. We are not 
called to summon up a great act of hope, but to turn our attention to the 
One who is faithful. As a professional student, I guess I imagined that 
this would be the ultimate final exam, and Fd better get it right." In- 
stead, with marvel and gratitude, he discovered "that there is more gift 
than accomplishment in all of this. If gratitude is the echo of grace, then 
hope is the echo of God's paying attention to us." 6 

At first glance, to speak of gratitude as a defining element of Igna- 
tian spirituality may seem like belaboring the obvious. Yet, the centrali- 
ty of gratitude has received scant attention in published form. "Because 
it is based in the Spiritual Exercises, Ignatian spirituality is grounded in 
intense gratitude and reverence," states theologian Monika Hell wig. "It 
begins with and continually reverts to the awareness of the presence 

in the text itself, enclosed in parentheses and preceded by SpEx, followed by the bold- 
face marginal number of the passage 

5 "The Ignatian Method and Social Theology/' in Notes on the Spiritual Exercises 
of St. Ignatius of Loyola, edited by David L. Fleming, S.J. (St. Louis, Mo.: Review for Re- 
ligious, 1983), 265. 

6 As cited in "The School of Hope" by Martha Ellen Stortz in Santa Clara Maga- 
zine, Winter 2006, 15. 

Ignatian Service * 

and power and care of God everywhere, for everyone, and at all times ." 7 
That gratitude is thematic of the Spiritual Exercises rests on an under- 
standing of the Contemplation to Attain Love as a recapitulation of the 
entire experience (SpEx 230-37). Viewing the Contemplatio as a summa- 
rizing meditation allows us to see how gratitude permeates the whole 
process of the Spiritual Exercises. 

I contend that the basic Ignatian dynamic that culminates in ser- 
vice and works of justice is embedded in the Contemplatio and reveals a 
strategy that is interwoven throughout the Exercises. This dynamic en- 
tails a tripartite movement: (a) from a contemplative gaze that appreci- 
ates the gift-nature of all reality, (b) to affective dispositions or attitudes 
of gratitude and love, (c) attitudes that then lead to service, since, for 
Ignatius, grateful love is better manifested in altruistic action than in 
words alone (SpEx 230). In short, Ignatius fosters gratitude as a thresh- 
old to love. Love, in turn, becomes a springboard to service. 

This essay is divided into four parts. Part I delineates how the 
Contemplatio can be seen as a recapitulation of the Exercises that under- 
scores the centrality of gratitude as a motive for service; the basic peda- 
gogy by which Ignatius attempted to lead people to a commitment to 
service was based on gratitude and love. Part II discusses how a literary 
inclusio, a writing technique for weaving seemingly disparate passages 
into a thematic whole, highlights gratitude as a leitmotif of the Spiritual 
Exercises. Part III discusses essential elements of an Ignatian spiritual- 
ity for ministry, while Part IV examines some obstacles to the Ignatian 
ideal of contemplative action. 

I: The Contemplatio as a Recapitulation 

Viewing the Contemplation to Attain Love as a recapitulation of 
the entire Spiritual Exercises was proposed by Michael J. Buck- 
ley, S.J., in 1975. 8 Since then other writers have reiterated this 
theme: Peter Schineller, S.J. in 1989, 9 and Robert Sears, S.J. and Joseph 

7 Monica K. Hellwig, "Finding God in All Things: A Spirituality for Today," in 
Review of Ignatian Studies 28, no. 2 (1997), no. 85, p. 28. 

8 Michael J. Buckley, S. J., "The Contemplation to Attain Love," in Supplement to 
the Way 24 (Spring 1975), 92-104. 

9 Peter Schineller, S.J., "St. Ignatius and Creation-Centered Spirituality in The 
Way 29, no. 1 (January 1989): 50-51. 


Bracken, S.J. in 2006. 10 For Buckley, the Contemplation is "a summary 
in consciousness and affectivity of major consideration of the previous 
four weeks/ 711 In support of his thesis, he cites Ignatian scholar Igna- 
tius Iparraguierre's belief that the Contemplatio provides "in a highly 
condensed form the very kernel of the Exercises" and must be seen as a 
"kind of concrete synthesis." 12 The Contemplatio concludes the Exercises 
and proceeds through four considerations, which closely correspond to 
the four Weeks of the Exercises. The first consideration recalls the First 
Principle and Foundation at the beginning of the Exercises when it in- 
vites us to contemplate the gifts of creation and redemption, and the 

special blessings and favors 
we have received. The second 
Recognition of the graces of each reflection reminds us that God 

week of the Exercises is meant to not only is the creator of life 

evoke an ever deepening gratitude and the giver of gifts, but also 
for all that we have received. dwells in all created things, es- 

____ _ -- ^^^^^__^^^^^^^^^ pecially in the human person, 

the imago Dei. This indwelling 

of the divine in all of creation corresponds with the Second Week of the 
Exercises and the Incarnation, the mystery that celebrates the enflesh- 
ment of divine compassion in the person of Jesus. The third consider- 
ation of the Contemplation to Attain Love asserts that God's presence 
in the world is not inert but dynamic: God labors and works for us in 
all of creation. This emphasis on the labor of God on our behalf calls to 
mind the Third Week of the Exercises when we pray over the passion 
and death of Jesus, whose love for us enabled him to endure painful la- 
bor and suffering, even unto death on the cross. Finally, the fourth point 
of the Contemplation portrays all of God's blessings as descending from 
above. This vision of God as source and giver of all gifts is possible be- 
cause the Risen Christ is "the efficacious witness to the creating and re- 
deeming love of God" (93). In these ways, the four considerations of the 
Contemplation to Attain Love summarize and recapitulate the major 
themes of the entire Exercises. 

10 Robert T. Sears, S.J., and Joseph A. Bracken, S.J., Self-Emptying Love in a Glob- 
al Context: The Spiritual Exercises and the Environment (Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 
2006), 74-75. 

11 Buckley, "Contemplation to Attain Love," 100. 

12 Ignatius Iparraguirre, A Key to the Study of the Spiritual Exercises, trans. J. Chianese 
(Bombay, 1959), 102 and 107, as cited by Buckley, ibid., 93. 

Ignatian Service * 

Gratitude for the Graces Received 

"The Contemplation brings the major strands of the Exercises into 
their synthesis in love," notes Buckley, "by recapitulating their graces in 
a heightened form" (100). Each Week of the Exercises invites us to call to 
mind the abundant graces of God and to be grateful. A schematic sum- 
mary of these graces highlights how gratitude is central to the Exercises. 

• The First Principle and Foundation fosters gratitude for the gifts 
of creation and one's personal life. Each of us has been created 
in "lone nativities," 13 not in twos or thousands. The existence we 
enjoy results from God's conscious love, choosing us to be. Be- 
cause we are "desired into being," 14 our basic attitude towards 
God should be one of gratitude and praise (Rom 1:21). This initial 
consideration also evokes gratitude for the gift of a love relation- 
ship with God meant to be enjoyed in the "here-and-now" and in 
the "hereafter." 

• The First Week's reflection on sin fosters gratitude for God's sav- 
ing and merciful love. With the help of grace, we realize with felt- 
knowledge that we are sinful, yet loved. 

• The Call of the King meditation, a transition between the First and 
Second Weeks, fosters gratitude for the gift of covenant partner- 
ship with Christ. We become grateful for a share in the ministry 
of Jesus and for the fact that we are sinful, yet called. 

• The Second Week evokes gratitude for the gift of Jesus, the Com- 
passion of God made flesh, and for the Good News of God's un- 
conditional love proclaimed by Jesus. 

• The Third Week elicits gratitude for Jesus' sacrificial love, a love 
manifested in a trusting surrender to God's will, even to the point 
of a painful death. 

• The Fourth Week fosters gratitude for the ongoing presence of the 
risen Christ as an abiding source of consolation. 

13 Jessica Powers, "The Masses," as cited in Ashes to Easter: Lenten Meditations by 
Robert F. Morneau (New York: Crossroads, 1997), 18. 

14 Katherine Dyckman, Mary Garvin, and Elizabeth Liebert, The Spiritual Exercis- 
es Reclaimed: Uncovering Liberating Possibilities for Woman (Mahwah, N. J.: Paulist Press, 
2001), 100. 

8 * Wilkie Au 

• The Contemplation to Attain Love fosters gratitude by inviting us 
to recall all of God's gifts of creation and redemption and to re- 
joice in God's loving presence and action in all of reality for us. 

Gateways to Gratitude 

The graces received throughout the Spiritual Exercises call for a 
grateful response. Peter Schneller observes, "In the presence of God's 
abounding love, the basic response according to Ignatius is gratitude. ,,15 
Ingratitude, Ignatius once wrote, "is the most abominable of all sins, 
and it is to be detested in the sight of the Creator and Lord by all of 
God's creatures for it is the forgetting of the graces, benefits and bless- 
ings received." 16 To counteract this kind of forgetting, Ignatius asks us 
in the first point of the Contemplatio to recall the many blessings of cre- 
ation and redemption that we have enjoyed. Recognition of the grac- 
es of each Week of the Exercises is meant to evoke an ever-deepening 
gratitude for all that we have received. For Ignatius, asking for what we 
want in prayer is an effective way of shaping our perceptions; when we 
voice our desires in prayer, God hears us and we hear ourselves. The 
graces of the Exercises correspond to the desires (id quod void) that Igna- 
tius encourages us to pray for throughout the experience. 17 When we 
sense on the level of "sentir" or felt-knowledge that we have received 
what we have asked for, we feel favored by God and grateful. Thus, for 

15 Schineller," "Ignatius and Creation-Centered Spirituality," 50. 

16 Letters of St. Ignatius of Loyola, trans, and ed. William J. Young (Chicago: Loyola 
University Press, 1959), 55, as cited in Schineller, ibid., 50. 

17 SpEx no. 48, regarding the Second Prelude. Jesuit Edward Kinerk makes a 
perceptive observation about how Ignatius's instructing retreatants to pray for particu- 
lar graces involved a kind of "schooling of desires." He states, "In this age of person- 
alism, one of the more startling aspects of the Spiritual Exercises is the final prelude to 
each meditation. Here Ignatius tells the retreatant the particular grace which should be 
asked for, 'that which I want and desire.' How, one might well ask, can I ask for some- 
thing that I may not really want? Should my desires not be more spontaneous and 
above all personal? Should I not be asking for what I want and desire instead of for 
what Ignatius tells me to want and desire?" In response to this criticism, Kinerk sug- 
gests that "Ignatius is not mandating desires but eliciting them, and he does this by in- 
teresting the retreatant' s imagination. Imagine yourself before Christ on the cross and 
ask yourself what you want to do for Christ. Imagine yourself before Christ the King 
and see if you do not desire to respond to his call. Imagine yourself with Christ in the 
Garden and see if you don't desire to experience sorrow with Christ. In effect, Ignatius 
is telling the retreatant, 'Try this on for size. See if it fits you and make it your own.'" (E. 
Edward Kinerk, S.J. "Eliciting Great Desires: Their Place in the Spirituality of the Society 
of Jesus," in Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 16, no. 5 [November, 1984]: 9-11). 

Ignatian Service * 

Ignatius, graces are gateways to gratitude when they are deeply felt and 
acknowledged. There is a vital difference between knowing something 
in a conceptual or notional way and knowing it in a heart-felt and affec- 
tive way. Anthony de Mello tells a story that illustrates the difference. 

Uwais the Sun* was once asked, 

"What has grace brought you?" 
He replied, "When I wake in the morning I feel 

like a man who is not sure he will 

live till evening." 
Said the questioner, 

"But doesn't everyone know this?" 
Said Uwais, 

"They certainly do. 

But not all of them 

feel it." 

De Mello concludes, "No one ever became drunk on the word wine." n 
Emotional realization is what makes a difference in spiritual transfor- 
mation. Ignatius sought to cultivate the kind of affective awareness that 
evokes gratitude and love for God. 

The Pedagogy of Ignatius 

The Spiritual Exercises represent Ignatius' s attempt to objectiv- 
ize his own experience in order to share the graces that he himself re- 
ceived. 19 Throughout the four weeks of the Exercises, Ignatius traces 
out for us how the love of God has unfolded in salvation history, and, in 
so doing, moves us to a deeper and deeper insight into the love of God. 
Step by step, Ignatius illustrates the progressive manifestation of divine 
love, starting with creation and ending with God's restoration of abun- 
dant life in the resurrection of Jesus. At a time when creation-centered 
spiritualities are responding to our environmental crisis by placing a 
much needed focus on God's love shown in creating and sustaining the 
cosmos, the Ignatian vision provides balance. Peter Schineller reminds 
us that "while the loving presence of God in creation remains a constant, 

18 Anthony de Mello, S.J., Song of the Bird (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & 
Company Inc., 1984), 2. 

19 John C. Olin, "Introduction and Notes," in The Autobiography of St. Ignatius with 
Related Documents, translated by Joseph F. O'Callaghan (N.Y.: Harper & Row Publish- 
ers, Inc., 1974), 12. 

10 * WlLKIE AU 

[creation] ... is not God's full or final word of love." 20 Those making the 
Exercises contemplate the love of God expressed in multiple ways: not 
only in creation, but also in the incarnation of the divine Word and in 
the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. 

Transformation, for Ignatius, entails internalizing the fullness of 
God's love in all its manifestations. Ignatius envisions the Spiritual Ex- 
ercises as an experience to enter, not something to be watched. To dis- 
tance oneself from the process and to study it only speculatively is to 
subvert its purpose. Ignatius intends it to be a transformative encounter 
in which God deals directly and uniquely with each person (SpEx, An- 
notation no. 15). The kind of profound interior change sought by Igna- 
tius requires the internalization of the truths of faith through personal 
exploration and discovery. Thus, he warns the director of the Exercises 
to refrain from explaining the material at too great a length that could 
engender passivity. More fruit is gained when retreatants themselves 
come to a deep, interior grasp of the matter through self-activity and 
personal experience, "for it is not much knowledge that fills and sat- 
isfies the soul, but the intimate understanding and relish of the truth" 
(SpEx, Annotation no. 2) Based on his experience of God's forming him, 
as a school master treats a child, Ignatius creates the Spiritual Exercises 
as a way by which people could be similarly formed by God. 

In the Contemplatio, we find a threefold dynamic by which we 
are led to a loving service of God. This Ignatian pedagogy for forming 
"people for others" is embedded in the Second Prelude of the Contem- 
platio: "This is to ask for what I desire. Here it will be to ask for an in- 
timate knowledge of the many blessings received, that filled with grati- 
tude for all, I may in all things love and serve the Divine Majesty" {SpEx 
233). This three-fold dynamic entails knowledge, gratitude, and lov- 
ing service. The dynamic begins with considering how we have been 
gifted by God, not only in a global fashion, but in concrete and partic- 
ular ways {SpEx 233, 234, 237). When done in a manner that leads to 
a felt-knowledge (sentir) of the wonderful blessings of God, this leads 
to a movement of affective arousal; our perception of God's gifts to us 
evokes an attitude of gratitude. As we become progressively aware of 
God's generosity, we are brought to a stance of humble thanksgiving. 
It was Ignatius' s hope that this deepening gratitude would bring us to 

Schineller, "Ignatius and Creation-Centered Spirituality," 50. 

Ignatian Service % 11 

the last movement — one of free and loving service. 21 As one writer has 
noted, "Knowledge, as an object of Ignatian petition, is never an end in 
itself, but is always a means of moving to deepening freedom. One asks 
to know and understand precisely in order to choose more freely/' 22 In 
short, the full goal sought in contemplating God's goodness consists in 
a unity of three moments — interior knowledge, love, and action. These 
three moments constitute "a single line of interpersonal surrender. Just 
as knowledge which did not issue in love would not be interior, so also 
a love that did not embody itself in service would be deceptive" (157). 

This threefold pattern of perception evoking affectivity that is- 
sues forth in action is traceable throughout the Exercises. In the First 
Week, for example, we seek a felt-knowledge both of our sinfulness and 
how it has caused things to ^ 
happen in the world that are , . *■•*■'«* 

stunning reversals of God's At the «&t of people of all colors, 
intent for creation. We also creeds, ages, and backgrounds - 

ask for a desire, motivated by struggling and lost like sheep 

gratitude for God's merciful without a shepherd - the Persons 

and forgiving love, to work °f the Tn "% are moved 

with Christ to restore order wlth compassion. 

and harmony to the created — — -^^^^^— ^— ^^^^^^^^— 
universe. As Monica Hellwig 

summarizes: Realizing that "the world as we have it is not the best we 
can hope for, nor the world God intends, but a badly broken and dis- 
torted one which can be restored and can be immeasurably better and 
happier than it is now/ 7 we are moved to collaborate with Christ out of 

21 This threefold Ignatian dynamic is reflected in Gospel accounts describing the 
ministerial outreach of Jesus. "Perceiving," "seeing" was the beginning of the com- 
passionate actions of Jesus. For example, once a leper approached Jesus, begging to be 
cured (Mk 1:40-^15). Jesus takes in the reality of this afflicted suppliant, paying close at- 
tention to his words and actions. Then, moved with compassion, he reaches out to touch 
the diseased person. Jesus' therapeutic touch issued forth from a compassionate heart. 
This episode exemplifies a threefold dynamic that characterizes many of Jesus' healing 
encounters (e.g. Lk 7: 13-14; Lk 13: 10-13; Mk 6:34-35): (1) Jesus is keenly aware of his 
interpersonal environment, sensitive to the needs of the people around him (contempla- 
tive perception); (2) he lets what he perceives stir him to compassion {affective arousal); 
(3) moved by compassion, he reaches out to help {altruistic action). 

22 Donald St. Louis, "The Ignatian Examen," in The Way of Ignatius of Loyola: Con- 
temporary Approaches to the Spiritual Exercises, edited by Phillip Sheldrake (London, spck, 
1991), 157. 

12 * Wilkie Au 

gratitude for his merciful and saving love. 23 Highlighting the Christo- 
centric nature of Ignatian service, the colloquy before the crucifix at the 
end of the first day of Week 1 invites a return of love for love, not service 
for Christ out of guilt (SpEx no. 53). 

The dynamic connection between knowledge, gratitude, and lov- 
ing action is further illustrated in the Second Prelude of the contempla- 
tion on the Incarnation, which states, "This is to ask for what I desire. 
Here it will be to ask for an intimate knowledge of our Lord, who has 
just become man for me, that I may love him more closely" (SpEx no. 
104). Ignatius' s portrayal of the Incarnation captures the essence of Ig- 
natian service as a means of embodying God's compassion for people. 
In guiding our contemplation of the Incarnation, he paints a vivid pic- 
ture of the mission of Jesus (SpEx 102-103, 106-108). He asks us to imag- 
ine how the Trinity hovers over the globe, perceiving the wounds of 
the world with sensitivity and care. At the sight of people of all colors, 
creeds, ages, and backgrounds — struggling and lost, like sheep with- 
out a shepherd — the Persons of the Trinity are moved with compassion. 
They then decide that one of them should become human to enable peo- 
ple to experience concretely God's empathic love. So the Word became 
flesh or, as John's Gospel puts it, "pitched his tent among us" (1:14). 
This Ignatian contemplation helps us to realize how the struggles and 
sufferings of people everywhere flood God's heart with compassion. 

Throughout the following Second Week contemplations of Jesus' 
public ministry, the retreatant witnesses Christ's extending God's com- 
passion to all he encountered. The Kingdom meditation is an invita- 
tion to continue Christ's mission. It is Ignatius' s hope that knowledge 
of Christ's compassionate love would stir up our gratitude and draw us 
to loving action in union with Christ. He "believed that the human de- 
sire to serve echoes the divine compassion, that concern for healing the 
world . . . [and] stems from God's desire to heal the world." 24 Thus, the 
Second Week petitions continually reecho the desire for "knowledge, 
love, and its commensurate expression in discipleship." 25 Finally, be- 
cause love of God is the "pure intention of the divine service" sought 
by Ignatius, his emphasis in the Third Week contemplations of Christ's 
passion and death is on the love of God manifested in pain. Unlike the- 

23 Hellwig, "Finding God in All Things," 30. 

24 William C. Spohn, "The Chosen Path/' in America, July 21-28, 2003, 12. 

25 Buckley, "Contemplation to Attain Love," 97. 

Ignatian Service * 13 

ories of atonement and satisfaction, the Ignatian approach focuses on 
love and gratitude, not on repayment and redemption. 

In sum, affective awareness of God's gracious love generates 
gratitude, which, for Ignatius, serves as a springboard to loving service. 
Even though all that we possess has been given to us by God, noth- 
ing is required of us in return. Genuine love never demands reciproca- 
tion. We do not owe God anything. Nevertheless, love urges us on to 
an intimate mutuality with a God who loves us so abundantly (SpEx no. 
230). As Jesuit William Meissner rightly observes of Ignatius, "Motifs of 
love and service are thus fused into a common and mutually sustaining 
theme pervading all of his spirituality. " 26 In short, through the Spiritual 
Exercises, Ignatius hopes to form people who are open to being touched 
by God in a way that illumines their perception of God's presence and 
action, stirs their heart with gratitude and love, and motivates them to 
assist others. 

II: A Literary Inclusion Highlights 
Gratitude and Service 

An inclusio is a literary device that creates a frame by placing sim- 
ilar matter at the beginning and end of a text. The two sides 
of an inclusio serve as brackets or bookends, providing an in- 
terpretative framework for the material between them. If we employ 
this device to the Spiritual Exercises, we can see how the whole work 
ends as it begins, with a recapitulation of pertinent motifs. The thematic 
similarity between the first exercise, The First Principle and Foundation 
(SpEx no. 23) and the final exercise, The Contemplation to Attain Love 
(SpEx nos. 230-237) allows us to view the entire work of the Exercises as 
a textual unit with gratitude as a central theme. In discussing the Con- 
templatio, Meissner states, "It is the final contemplation toward which 
the whole of the Exercises have been aiming — the final point in which, 
together with the Principle and Foundation, the Exercises are framed and 
defined" (237, with emphasis added). 

The biblical scholar Marcus Borg describes a form of faith as "vi- 
sio," "as a way of seeing the whole, a way of seeing 'what is.'" 27 Our visio 

26 W. W. Meissner, S.J., M.D., To the Greater Glory of God: A Psychological Study of 
Ignatian Spirituality (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press, 1999), 336. 

27 Marcus J. Borg, The Heart of Christianity: Rediscovering a Life of Faith (New York: 
HarperCollins Publishers, 2003), 34. 


is very significant because how we view the whole will affect how we 
respond to life. Ignatius articulates his visio or perception of reality in 
consistent and complementary ways in the first and final exercises of 
the Spiritual Exercises. Featuring a loving God as the creative source 
and generous giver of everything that exists, both exercises invite us 

to stand in grateful awe before 
"the mystery that there is any- 
A central truth of the First thing, anything at all, let alone 

l rxncxt)ie CLtici t ounaaTton ts tacit cosmos iov memorv everv- 

we have been "desired into being" thing, rather than void/' 28 Fur- 
by a loving and generous God. thermore, both considerations 

^ « ,^_ contextualize service to God 

within a relationship of love 
and as a grateful response to being gifted by God. Clearly, gratitude 
permeates Ignatius' s visio. "Gratitude can be best defined and under- 
stood as the only possible response to a gift, to something recognized as 
utterly, freely given," scholars note. "Gratitude is the vision — the way of 
seeing — that recognizes 'gift/" 29 

Desired into Being, Sustained by God's Love 

During the ten months in the seclusion of Manresa, following his 
spiritual conversion at Loyola, Ignatius had a vision at the River Car- 
doner. 30 This mystical experience shaped his view of reality and, in 
turn, it determined his fundamental attitude towards life, which was 
one of profound reverence, gratitude, and love. In order to foster the 
same affective dispositions in others, Ignatius attempted through the 
Spiritual Exercises to share his perception of God and the world. His 
hope was that by internalizing the view of reality that was revealed to 
him, people might be filled with gratitude and love for God and moved 
to express that love in acts of service. 

The First Principle and Foundation paints a portrait of human life 
as emanating from God as its creative source. Traditionally, this Ignatian 
meditation has been expressed in a dry and succinct manner: "Man is 

28 Denise Levertov, "In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being," and 
"Primary Wonder," in Sands of the Well (New York: New Directions, 1996), 107, 129, as 
quoted in Imaging Life after Death: Love That Moves the Sun and Stars, by Kathleen Fischer 
(Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 2004), 10. 

29 Ernest Kurtz and Katherine Ketcham, The Spirituality of Imperfection: Storytell- 
ing and the Search for Meaning (New York: Bantam Books, 1992), 175. 

30 Autobiography of St. Ignatius, no. 28. 

Ignatian Service * 15 

created to praise, reverence, and serve God our Lord, and by this means 
to save his soul. The other things on the face of the earth are created for 
man to help him in attaining the end for which he is created." 31 When 
stated in such jejune terms, it is difficult to spot any similarity between 
the First Principle and Foundation and the Contemplatio, which portrays 
all blessings and gifts as descending from above, "as the rays of light de- 
scend from the sun and as the waters flow from their fountains" (SpEx 
no. 237). However, some contemporary reformulations of the First Prin- 
ciple and Foundation highlight their similarity. For example, the First 
Principle has been cast in the form of a prayer: 

Lord my God, when Your love spilled over into creation, 

You thought of me. 

I am from love, of love and for love. 

Let my heart, O God, always recognize, cherish, and enjoy your 

goodness in all of creation. 
Direct all that is me toward your praise. 
Teach me reverence for every person, all things. 
Energize me in your service. 32 

That the creative act of God manifests an outpouring of divine 
love is also nicely stated in a recent commentary on the Spiritual Exercis- 
es. The authors express the mystery of creation, which is the focus of the 
First Principle and Foundation, in terms that resonate with the Contem- 
platio 's focus on divine love as the impetus for creation. Seeing oneself 
and all of creation as continually loved and desired into being by a pas- 
sionate God," they assert, "prompts an awe and still deeper reverence 
for God, self and the sacrament of creation. Such was the case with Ig- 
natius at the river Cardoner. A sense of the diaphanous presence of God 
in everything undergirds the awareness of gift." 33 A central truth of the 

31 SpEx no. 23. The language of this traditional formulation is problematic for 
two reasons: (1) it seems to espouse an anthropocentrism that neglects the intrinsic val- 
ue of non-human creation; (2) it is androcentric and thus not inclusive. For a discussion 
of how the Spiritual Exercises can be understood in a way that encourages care and rev- 
erence for all of creation — both human and non-human — see Sears and Bracken, Self- 
Emptying Love in a Global Context. For a fine treatment of how the Spiritual Exercises can 
be adapted in a pastorally sensitive way to honor the concerns and sensitivities of wom- 
en, see Dyckman, Garvin, and Liebert, The Spiritual Exercises Reclaimed. 

32 Jacqueline Bergan and S. Marie Schwan, Love: A Guide for Prayer (Winona, 
Minn.: Saint Mary's Press, 1985), 11. 

33 Dyckman, Garvin, and Liebert, The Spiritual Exercises Reclaimed, p. 100. 

16 * Wilkie Au 

First Principle and Foundation is that we have been "desired into be- 
ing" by a loving and generous God. The emphasis on creative Love as 
a central focus of the First Principle and Foundation captures how it is 
presently understood and articulated by Jesuit retreat directors. How- 
ard Gray, S.J., for example, states that God not only initiates human life 
as a gift, but also accompanies the gift of life with an offer of a love re- 
lationship. 34 According to Ignatius, this love relationship, like all oth- 
ers, needs to contain three moments: praise, reverence, and service. In 
other words, love moves us to praise, revere, and serve those we love. 

To praise is to notice and to acknowledge the goodness or gifted- 
ness of someone. When we praise the Creator, we acknowledge God's 
greatness and goodness with gratitude and joy. To praise is to give God 
glory or credit for all of God's wondrous gifts. Praise keeps our focus 
on the divine and the reality of God's good and gracious presence in life. 
Praising is central to Christian prayer, as revealed in the following dox- 
ology, one of the most frequently sung hymns in the Christian church: 
^ __ _ b ^____ "Praise God from whom all 

blessings flow; praise God all 
The tenets of an eco-feminist creatures here below; praise 

spirituality are reflected in God above/ heavenl host; 

Ignatius's insistence that love of Creator Son and Hol Ghost 

God entails reverence for the earth Amen " 

and all species of life. 

Reverencing oth- 
ers is to honor who they are as 
other — as unique and unprecedented selves who evoke our apprecia- 
tion, wonder, and admiration. When we revere God, we acknowledge 
God as the mysterious source and sustainer of life and the transcendent 
Wholly Other in our midst. Thus Ignatius suggests that we assume a 
posture of reverence when addressing God in prayer (SpEx, Annota- 
tion no. 3). This attention to posture may strike us as a residue of Igna- 
tius's medieval experience in the royal courts of Spain. Nevertheless, 
the emphasis on approaching God with reverence remains perennially 
contemporary. Honoring God extends beyond our attitude and posture 
in prayer, however, because God dwells in all creation. Thus, reverence 
in Ignatian spirituality requires that we regard all of creation, human 
and non-human, with appreciation, wonder, and awe. Revering God in 
all creation prohibits the exploitation, manipulation, and abuse of cre- 

34 Howard Gray, S.J., Spiritual Exercises Seminar given at Columbiere Retreat 
House in Clarkston, Michigan, June 19, 1985. 

Ignatian Service * 17 

ated things, especially of human beings. The tenets of an eco-feminist 
spirituality are reflected in Ignatius' s insistence that love of God entails 
reverence for the earth and all species of life. In this sense, Ignatian spir- 
ituality can be viewed as a "creation-centered" spirituality. 

Finally, serving the beloved is a dimension of loving. For Igna- 
tius, the service of God springs out of a felt-experience of God's love of 
us and a gratitude that seeks to return that love. Our dedication to God 
must spring from a free desire to return love. Like the First Principle 
and Foundation, the Contemplatio speaks of the mutuality and service 
that should characterize a love relationship in which one has been gift- 
ed and blessed. In prenotes to the Contemplation, Ignatius emphasizes 
two points: (1) "that love ought to manifest itself in deeds rather than in 
words"; (2) "that love consists in a mutual sharing of goods, for exam- 
ple, the lover gives and shares with the beloved what he possesses, or 
something of that which he has or is able to give; and vice versa, the be- 
loved shares with the lover" (SpEx 230). That the context of our human 
existence is a love relationship with a Creator who "desired us into be- 
ing" means that the basic orientation of our lives is meant to be "other- 
oriented." A love that is shaped by praise, reverence, and service can- 
not be self-centered, but must be focused on the beloved. Grounded in 
a healthy love of self, friendship calls for a self-transcendence that en- 
ables one to reach out to others in life-giving ways. In this reaching out 
to God and all that God has created, our fulfillment as human beings 
is to be found. This is the core message of both the First Principle and 
Foundation and the Contemplation for Attaining Love. 

Ill: Becoming Contemplatives Even in Action 

In the Ignatian schema, gratitude and love are meant not only to 
supply the motivation for service, but also to shape the manner in 
which we serve. The call given to us in the Kingdom meditation 
is an invitation to intimate collaboration with Christ in which we labor 
with him by day and break bread with him by night. In other words, Ig- 
natian discipleship entails being covenant partners in a way that com- 
bines friendship with shared labor. Ideally, Ignatian service leads to 
a closeness to Christ that results from working shoulder-to-shoulder 
with him. Ignatius hopes the Kingdom meditation would elicit a gener- 
ous response of love to God's gracious invitation to be intimate co-work- 
ers (SpEx no. 97). 

18 * Wilkie Au 

Ignatius viewed ministry primarily as God's action in the 
world. In the Contemplatio he describes God's presence in creation 
as dynamic, reminding us that "God works and labors for us in all 
creatures upon the face of the earth/' God is ever in our midst labor- 
ing for us. "In the heavens, the elements, the plants, the fruits, the 
cattle, etc., God gives being, conserves them, confers life and sensa- 
tion" (SpEx no. 236). This ongoing labor of the Creator in the world 
constitutes the essence of ministry. Given this understanding of min- 
istry as God's pervasive action, it is clear why Ignatius taught: "Pray 
as if everything depends on you; work as if everything depends on 
God." It is sometimes argued that Ignatius said just the opposite; 
that is, "Pray as if everything depends on God; work as if everything 
depends on you." However, Jesuit theologian Francis Smith asserts, 
"We now know that . . . the correct version in a simplified form" is 
"Pray as if everything depends on you; act as if everything depends 
on God." In its full form, translated from the Latin, Ignatius said, 
"Have faith in God, as if all success depended on you, nothing on 
God; set to work, however, as if nothing were to come about through 
you, and everything through God alone." According to Smith, "One 
could debate what the fuller version means, but ... [I] think the 
simplified version is an accurate capturing of its meaning." 35 The 
focus of ministry should be on God, not us. We are called to be, in 
the words of Jerome Nadal, "contemplatives even in action," people 
who have a facility for finding God in all things. "Properly under- 
stood, the essential place for meeting God in the Ignatian schema," 
writes Michael W. Cooper, S.J., "comes riot just in prayer but even 
more in action in the outer, public, societal, cultural, and ecclesial 
spheres." Ignatian service should not be seen as "doing our thing for 
God," but as a call to a synergy with God, to join "God in the work 
God has already initiated to heal and transform both individuals and 
institutions- — thus unitative action." 36 

35 Francis R. Smith, S.J., "The Religious Experience of Ignatius of Loyola and 
the Mission of Jesuit Higher Education Today" (paper presented at the Fourth Institute 
on Jesuit Higher Education, University of San Francisco, San Francisco: Cal., June 6-9, 
1990), 2-3. 

36 Michael W. Cooper, S.J., "Ignatian Spirituality: Unitative Action with Christ 
on Mission," in Presence: An International Journal of Spiritual Direction, 2, no. 3 (Septem- 
ber, 1996): 26. 

Ignatian Service * 19 

A Mysticism of Service 

A prominent Ignatian image of ministry is that of being placed 
by the Father next to Jesus carrying the cross. 37 Jesus carrying the cross 
symbolizes the redemptive presence of Christ in the world today. By 
being placed in intimate juxtaposition next to Jesus, we are given the 
gift of sharing in Christ's saving work. This image of ministry stems 
from Ignatius' s personal religious experience at a small chapel called La 
Storta, about ten miles outside of Rome. 38 When he was making his way 
to the city to consult with the Pope as to how he and his newly formed 
group of Jesuits could best serve the universal Church, he had a vision. 
In this vision, he experienced his petition to serve Jesus being granted 
as he heard the Father say to Jesus, weighed down by his cross: "It is 
my will that You take this man [referring to Ignatius] for Your servant; 
and Jesus in turn saying to Ignatius, "It is My will that you serve Us". 39 
Ignatius' s experience of being chosen as a servant by God resembles St. 
Paul's understanding of himself as chosen to be a minister of God (2 Cor 
6:3f) and minister of Christ (2 Cor 11:23). 

Clearly, the invitation to intimate collaboration with Christ is 
far more than a mere formal arrangement, since it includes an offer of 
close friendship. This is why de Guibert describes Jesuit spirituality as a 
mysticism of service 40 or as "unitative action with Christ on mission" by 
Cooper. 41 To support his notion of Ignatian mysticism, de Guibert cites 
the testimony of Nadal, one of the early companions who knew Ignatius 

37 See Jesuit Joseph de Guibert' s magisterial treatise on Jesuit spirituality, The 
Jesuits: Their Spiritual Doctrine and Practice (Chicago: Institute of Jesuit Studies, Loyola 
University Press, 1964), 176-81. 

38 Autobiography of St. Ignatius, 89. 

39 De Guibert, Spiritual Doctrine and Practice, 38-39. 

40 Commenting on de Guibert' s notion of a mysticism of service, Meissner com- 
ments perceptively: "If there is justice in de Guibert's (1964) distinction between mys- 
ticism of love or union and mysticism of service, the balance tilts in Ignatius from one 
to the other — if the motif of service dominates the Exercises and the Constitutions, the 
companion motif of love emerges as the dominant theme in his Spiritual Journal. Yet it 
may also be fairly claimed that de Guibert's classic distinction between the 'mysticism 
of union' and the 'mysticism of service' may not do justice to pivotal statements about 
union with Christ and God in the annotations [SE 15] and in the second mode of elec- 
tion [SE 184]. The only explicitly nuptial reference is to union of Christ and the church 
as his spouse [SE 353]" (To the Glory of God, 336). 

41 Cooper, "Unitative Action with Christ," 2-39. Here, Cooper distinguished be- 
tween "unitative prayer" and "unitative action." 

20 * Wilkie Au 

intimately. According to Nadal, Ignatius 7 s special grace was the abili- 
ty "to see and contemplate in all things, actions, and conversations the 
presence of God and the love of spiritual things, to remain a contempla- 
tive even in the midst of action" (simul in actione contemplativus)."* 2 Oth- 
er companions spoke in similar ways about Ignatius' s mystical experi- 
ence during daily life. De Guibert quotes Ribadeneira as saying, "It is 
unbelievable with what ease our Father recollected himself in the midst 
of a tide of business, apparently having at his disposal and under his 
hand, so to speak, the spirit of devotion and torrents of tears" (45). And 
Gongalves da Camara noted that Ignatius enjoyed a "habitual aware- 
ness of God and his continual prayer was in the midst of goings and 
comings" (45). De Guibert concludes, 

We are not dealing here with a mysticism of introversion turned chiefly toward 
the depths of the soul, that is, with a mystic union of God at the fine point of the 
soul and a union removed as far as possible from all that is perceptible to the 
senses. Instead, we are considering a divine activity which affects the entire per- 
son, in all the spiritual and bodily faculties which he can devote to the service 
of God. (58-59) 

Similarly, in describing Ignatian mysticism, Cooper asserts that 
"In earlier, more contemplative-based spiritualities, the goal was unita- 
tive prayer with one's God. Jesuit spirituality has an apostolic thrust; its 
goal is unitative action, that is, a felt sense of bondedness with Christ in 
the midst of active life and ministry." 43 A mysticism of service requires 
integrating the polarities of intimacy with God and active engagement 
in the world. It calls simultaneously for the capacity to "be with Jesus" 
and to be "sent off" in mission. 

Paradoxically, this Jesus who invites deep friendship remains always the "Christ 
on Mission," who desires to free our brothers and sisters from "the chains and 
snares" with which the "enemy of our human nature" is wont to bind them. In 
the Kingdom meditation Jesus calls us on mission with him in order to share this 
sacred task. Friendship and intimacy go with and are found in apostolic mission and 
ministry in and to the world! (36, with emphasis added) 

This paradoxical ideal of Ignatian spirituality finds biblical roots: 
the call of the apostles in Mark's gospel (3:13-19a) and John's discourse 
on the vine and the branches (Jn 15). In both pericopes, union with 
Christ is paired with being sent to serve. In Mark's gospel, the twelve 
apostles are called for two purposes, which are grammatically joined by 

42 De Guibert, S.J., Spiritual Doctrine and Practice, 45. 

43 Cooper, "Unitative Action with Christ," 26. 

Ignatian Service * 21 

the coordinate conjunction, kai (3:13-14). Use of a coordinate conjunc- 
tion here to link these two purpose clauses is significant because it indi- 
cates that both purposes are equally important. Like the apostle, we are 
called to simultaneously "be with him" {met'autou) and to "be sent off to 
preach the Gospel" (apostellen . . . kerrussein). 44 John's vine and branches 
also reflects this summons to a paradoxical spirituality. While the first 
part of chapter 15 emphasiz- 
es the theme of intimate union 

and the need to "remain" (me- What distinguishes codependence 
nein) in Christ (4-10), the sec- from authentic Christian service 

ond half speaks of Christ's is the compulsive quality of the 

commissioning his disciples co dependent's relationship 

so that they might bear fruit with others. 

in plenty (v. 16). "Once people ^^^^^_^^^^_^^^__^^^^^ 
make this connection between 

the Jesus of intimate friendship and the Jesus on Mission," states Coo- 
per, "they are more able to see that the two dimensions of that relation- 
ship. . . . need to be held together in a creative tension." 45 In biblical 
terms, to be contemplatives in action is to integrate the Mary and the 
Martha dimensions of the self. A mysticism of service challenges us to 
be intimately present and united to God, even in the midst of the min- 
isterial activities. In the Constitutions, Ignatius makes clear the impor- 
tance of being united with God in ministry. In discussing what is es- 
sential for the ongoing well-being of the Society as an apostolic body, 
Ignatius writes, 

The means which unite the human instrument with God and so dispose it that 
it may be wielded dexterously by His divine hand are more effective than those 
that equip it in relation to men. Such means are, for example, goodness and vir- 
tue, and especially charity, and a pure intention of the divine service, and famili- 
arity with God our Lord in spiritual exercises of devotion, and sincere zeal for 
souls for the sake of glory to Him who created and redeemed them and not for 
any other benefit. {Cons., pt. X, no. 813) 

This understanding of ministry as God's present labor on behalf of 
all creation and the image of ministry as being placed next to Jesus car- 
rying the cross highlight the essential nature of an Ignatian spirituality of 
service. As the Kingdom meditation highlights, being given an intimate 
share in God's action in the world is a gift and a vocation. As Chris- 

44 Cf. my "Discipleship in Mark," in The Bible Today, October 1973, 1249-51. 

45 Cooper, "Unitative Action with Christ," 36. 

22 * Wilkie Au 

tians, our call is to embody the consoling presence and saving action of 
the Risen Christ for others today. 46 The heart of ministry finds poetic ex- 
pression in words of Gerard Manley Hopkins: 

I say more: the just man justices; 
Keeps grace; that keeps all his goings graces; 
Acts in God's eye what in God's eye he is 
Christ — for Christ plays in ten thousand places, 

Lovely in limbs, and lovely in eyes not his 

To the Father through the features of men's faces. 47 

Strictly speaking, all ministry is collaborative because all of us are co- 
workers with God. Before we are collaborators with each other, we are 
first of all, in the words of St. Paul, "collaborators of Christ" (1 Cor 3:9). 

IV: Obstacles to Contemplative Action 

If our service does not emanate from gratitude and love, we are li- 
able to operate out of deficient motives and fall into dysfunctional 
work patterns. Highly motivated ministers are easily vulnerable to 
being over-conscientious. This unreflective zeal is an instance of Igna- 
tius' s Second Week temptation, i.e., an apparent good. For example, it 
has been said that the delegates of the Thirty second General Congre- 
gation initially intended to conclude the decree "Jesuits Today" with 
the "Prayer for Generosity" frequently attributed to Ignatius and wide- 
ly popularized by its inscription on holy cards. 48 However, because of 
doubts raised regarding the authenticity of the prayer as genuinely Ig- 
natian, the "Suscipe" ("Take, O Lord, and Receive . . .") was chosen in- 
stead. 49 A prayer of generous self-offering, the Suscipe echoes the senti- 
ments of the colloquy that ends the Kingdom meditation (SpEx no. 98) 

46 According to John O'Malley, S.J., the first Jesuits considered all ministries of 
the Society, not just the hearing of confessions, as ministries of spiritual consolation (The 
First Jesuits [Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993], 19). 

47 "As Kingfishers Catch Fire," as cited in Hearts on Fire: Praying with Jesuits, ed- 
ited by Michael Harter, S.J. (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1993), 59. 

48 "Jesuits Today," Decree 2 of the 32nd General Congregation in Documents of the 
31st and 32nd General Congregations of the Society of Jesus, edited by John Padberg, S.J., the 
American translation by the Jesuit Conference, Washington, D. C. (St. Louis: Institute 
of Jesuit Sources, 1997). 

49 This story was recounted to me by Michael J. Buckley, S.J., who was a delegate at 
the 32nd General Congregation and a member of the committee which drafted Decree 2. 

Ignatian Service * 23 

Apart from the absence of historical evidence to verify the author- 
ship of the "Prayer of Generosity," its content casts serious doubts about 
whether it actually flowed from Ignatius' s pen. Phrases such as "to give 
and not to count the cost, to fight and not to heed the wounds, to toil 
and not to seek for rest" sound antithetical to Ignatius' s understanding 
of ministry as God's labor in all of creation for us. These words also are 
alien to his desire that we strive to be "contemplative even in action." 
Furthermore, the "Prayer for Generosity" seems to contradict what Ig- 
natius proposes in the Constitutions as the norm of Jesuit action, i.e., dis- 
crete* caritas. Ignatius realized that law can only comment on the gen- 
erality of situations and that the individual on the scene must often be 
left to determine what exactly should be done in concrete situations. In 
these cases, he suggests that "discreet charity" be the norm of action. 
This concept reflects Ignatius' s concern for the integration of thinking, 
feeling, and action. Variously translated as "an educated or intelligent 
heart" or "loving intelligence," this Ignatian standard is rooted in both 
intellect and will. In scholastic philosophy, "discretion" is seen as the 
wise use of the properly chosen means to an end; prudence is the wise 
choice of means. As such, discretion is a function of the mind. Charity, 
or love, on the other hand, is a function of the heart, involving will and 
feelings. When told by God in a dream that he could have anything he 
wanted, Solomon asked for "a heart to understand how to discern be- 
tween good and evil" (I Kgs 3:9). A heart able to understand how to dis- 
cern is the essence of discreet charity. 

It is significant that for Ignatius, an adequate norm of action must 
integrate both discretion and love. Although love should always be the 
motive for service, in and of itself love provides no clear course of ac- 
tion. The existential question always remains: What does love require 
in this particular situation? Thus reason must come into play. Since 
"discreta caritas" is mentioned seven times in the Constitutions, it is clear 
that Ignatius wanted followers whose actions were not determined by 
reason alone, or by feeling alone, but by an intelligent heart and a com- 
passionate mind. 50 The "Prayer for Generosity" does not reflect the wis- 
dom of Ignatius' s discreet charity; indeed, it sounds like an exhortation 
to unreflective and unrelenting action. The whole tenor of the Consti- 
tutions is one of "temperate restraint in spiritual and bodily labors," a 
moderation that does not "lean toward an extreme of rigor or toward 
excessive laxity" (Cons. no. 822). Because Ignatius viewed ministry pri- 

50 Cons., nos. 209, 237, 269, 582, 727, 729, 735. 

24 m Wilkie Au 

marily as God's labor in which we are given a share, God is the prin- 
cipal worker and we are co-workers. God's sustaining action will not 
cease when we exercise prudent self-care by taking time off for prayer, 
leisure and solitude. 

Codependency as an Apparent Good 

In a real way, the Prayer for Generosity smacks of codependen- 
cy. The term "codependent" originally referred to persons who were 
so closely involved with an alcoholic or drug addict that their lives re- 
volved around the addict's behavior. Today the term implies problems 
with a variety of issues such as setting limits, intimacy skills, and com- 
pulsive activity, usually in the form of "helping" others. The literature 
on codependency suggests personality characteristics that bear a strik- 
ing resemblance to the caricature of the "good Christian"; for example, 
compulsively putting the needs of others before one's own, an inability 
to say "no," or an excessive sense of responsibility for the welfare of oth- 
ers. Codependents have a way of getting into others' lives by making 
themselves needed, and then helping in ways that point to their own 
generosity and self-sacrifice. Others exist to make them feel needed. 
Although codependents would be the last to see this dark side of their 
helpfulness, they relate to others as objects that they use to give them- 
selves a sense of purpose and value. Such persons are also inclined to 
help others in order that others become dependent on them. Genuine 
helping, by contrast, is not self-serving but arises out of genuine empa- 
thy and compassion. Because it is a response to another's real need for 
help, not one's own need to be needed, it quietly enables those served 
to become healthier, more autonomous persons. 

Codependents tend to be self-sacrificing, generous, other-direct- 
ed, and idealistic people. Since these are also characteristics of genuine 
Christian self-transcendence, codependency is often confused with ap- 
ostolic zeal. What distinguishes codependence from authentic Chris- 
tian service is the compulsive quality of the codependent' s relationship 
with others. For the codependent, giving is a "must" rather than a re- 
sponse of genuine love and compassion. Codependents do not give 
freely; they give because they "should." The giving of the codependent 
is often more a flight from self than the dying to self that characterizes 
true Christian service. Suffering from low self-esteem and feeing unlov- 
able, codependents strive to overcome these painful feelings by proving 
to others that they are good and therefore worthy of love. For exam- 
ple, being busy is a common way we unconsciously promote our sig- 

Ignatian Service * 25 

nificance. 51 In a culture that equates doing good with being good, code- 
pendents easily become addicted to helping others, thereby justifying 
themselves by good works. An Ignatian spirituality of ministry chal- 
lenges us to make our way gracefully between the Scylla of narcissism, 
resulting from excessive self-concern, and the Charybdis of grandiosity, 
resulting from too easily dismissing our legitimate needs as human be- 
ings. When caring for others is not balanced with caring for self, minis- 
tering as a contemplative in action proves impossible. 

The Prayer for Generosity easily lends itself to being used as a 
rationalization for an unhealthy overdoing in ministry. Besides disre- 
garding the norm of discreet charity, excessive work can be seen as the 
kind of subtle temptation that, __ _^_^__^_^_____ 

according to Ignatius, con- r , , ■.. 

& , % . For example, over-extending 

fronts people who are strlv- oneselfin work appears initiaUy 

ing to grow spiritually (SpEx, fQ ^ a sensMe expression of 

Annotation 10). This tempta- generosity and dedication; but 

tion takes the form of an ap- whm H mds {n y oykss exhaustion, 
parent good or evil under the leading to deterioration of prayer 
guise of a good. Neither gross and personal relationships, it 

nor easily detectable, this sub- exposes its true nature as an 

tie temptation is seductive obstacle to contemplative 

and requires sensitive dis- and unitative action 

cernment. Ignatius learned with Christ on mission. 

this from personal experience. 

During his time in Manresa, 

the newly converted Inigo took on severe forms of penance and fasting 
as a way of making amends for the excesses of his former life as a court- 
ier. When undergoing his regimen of strict fasting, he had a vision of a 

51 Novelist John Grisham vividly illustrates how overwork is worn as a badge 
of honor and status: "'Have a seat/ Foltrigg [U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of 
Louisiana] said, pointing at a chair. 'We're finishing up.' He stretched too, then cracked 
his knuckles. He loved his reputation as a workaholic, a man of importance unafraid of 
painful hours, a family man whose calling went beyond wife and kids. The job meant 
everything. His client was the United States of America. Trumann [FBI agent in New 
Orleans] had heard this eighteen-hour-a-day crap for seven years now. It was Foltrigg' s 
favorite subject — talking about himself and the hours at the office and the body that 
needed no sleep. Lawyers wear their loss of sleep like a badge of honor. Real macho 
machines grinding it out around the clock" (John Grisham, The Client [New York: Dou- 
bleday, 1993], 8. 

26 * Wilkie Au 

many-eyed serpent. 52 This he initially interpreted as a consolation that 
confirmed the Tightness of his punishing penances. Later, however, he 
reassessed the vision in light of his powerful mystical experience at the 
River Cardoner and concluded that it was a form of false consolation 
that deluded him into fasting to the point of harming his health. 53 Per- 
haps, this experience of being subtly seduced by an apparent good led 
Ignatius to formulate his rule regarding how people striving to do good 
are tempted by evil camouflaged under the guise of good. He warns 
that what initially glitters like gold may end up as fool's gold. For ex- 
ample, over-extending oneself in work appears initially to be a sensible 
expression of generosity and dedication; but when it ends in joyless ex- 
haustion, leading to deterioration of prayer and personal relationships, 
it exposes its true nature as an obstacle to contemplative and unitative 
action with Christ on mission. Addressing the topic of the mental health 
of Jesuits, Charles M. Shelton, S.J. states, that "work can easily become 
the 'disguised good' if it fosters workaholic tendencies or prevents the Je- 
suit from attending to other areas of his life" , 54 According to Shelton, 

A subtle but destructive tendency for many well-intentioned men is, simply, "to 
do more." This is especially tempting as the needs of the Church become more 
pressing and manpower shortages more critical. At some point a Jesuit must 
examine his ministerial efforts in order to establish healthy boundaries. A Je- 
suit's apostolic life must balance play, rest, work, and prayer" (57, with empha- 
sis added). 

Excessive busyness is a temptation that ministers striving to be 
contemplatives in action need to be wary of because of the ill effects 

52 The Autobiography of St. Ignatius, 33, 40. 

53 C.G. Jung, who wrote a commentary of the Spiritual Exercises, interprets Igna- 
tius's experience in a way that supports Ignatius's ultimate reassessment of his practice 
of excessive penance. Jung states: "We should fix our attention on the actual content of 
this vision. Ignatius had seen a snake covered in shining eyes. This is no isolated case, 
many of my patients have seen a similar image, it is an essential symbol for the lower 
part of the nervous system, for the sphere of the instincts. This is the root from which the 
whole psychic life grows. This is why the serpent is a symbol for healing. . . . When man 
[sic] is ill he is severed from his instincts and part of the art of healing is to bring him 
back to them, so that he can grow on his own roots. Consciousness and ideas, valuable 
as they are in themselves, cut us away from the essential roots of our being. Ignatius 
had surely injured his health with penances and constant prayer, so the healing snake 
appears as a compensation in his vision, but he was not in a position to recognize this 
fact"( Summer Semester, Unpublished Notes, Lecture X, June 30, 1939, 166-167). 

54 Charles M. Shelton, S.J., "Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits," in Stud- 
ies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 23, no. 4 (September, 1991): 12, with emphasis added. 

Ignatian Service * 27 

that it can produce. The story of a woman religious who ran a halfway 
house for abused women illustrates the danger of overwork. Finding 
herself on the brink of burnout because of her codependent and worka- 
holic tendencies, she, a recovering alcoholic, sought help from her spon- 
sor. The words of the wise sponsor to the worn-out and discouraged 
woman minister can serve as sound advice for all who strive to serve 
others. "My dear," her sponsor said with firmness and care, "it's good 
to do God's work, but not God's job!" Ignatius's belief that ministry is 
God's labor for the welfare of the world supports this advice. 

Another obstacle to contemplative action is an inability to accept 
human limitation and imperfection. A detriment to psychological and 
spiritual health, perfectionism must be distinguished from the healthy 
pursuit of excellence that motivates many talented people. Appreciat- 
ing our potential and taking genuine pleasure in striving to meet high 
standards is healthy; demanding a higher level of performance than we 
can attain is not. Because our standards are beyond reach or reason 
when we are caught in the grip of perfectionism, we strain compulsive- 
ly toward impossible goals and measure our worth in terms of produc- 
tivity and accomplishment. Never feeling that our efforts are enough, 
we are unable to achieve a sense of satisfaction because we think that 
what we do is insufficiently good to warrant that feeling. In contrast, 
those who take pleasure in doing their best without needing to be per- 
fect tend to be satisfied with their efforts, even when the results leave 
room for improvement. When driven by a need to be flawless, we of- 
ten feel anxious, confused, and emotionally drained before a new task is 
ever begun. We are motivated not so much by desire for improvement 
as by fear of failure. On the other hand, when we strive for excellence 
in a healthy way, we are more likely to feel excited, energized, and clear 
about what needs to be done. In general, the normal quest for excel- 
lence produces growth and benefits our ministry, whereas the compul- 
sive drive for perfection easily leads to overwork and a resulting burn- 
out, exhaustion, and distaste for ministry. 

Perfectionism and Religious Rhetoric 

The rhetoric of religious life sometimes makes Christians particu- 
larly vulnerable to perfectionism. For example, Jesuit documents exhort 
religious to strive always for the magis (the more) and to do everything 
ad major em Dei gloriam (for the greater glory of God). Similarly, the Sis- 
ters of St. Joseph are given a hundred "maxims of perfection" to follow. 
Young and idealistic saints, such as St. Stanislaus Kostka, whose motto 

28 % Wilkie Au 

was Ad major a natus sum (I was born for greater things) have also been 
held up for emulation. The underlying message of much traditional ha- 
giography is that saints are perfect, and, hence, we should all strive for 
perfection. Commenting on St. John Berchmans after the saint's death, 
his rector wrote: "What we universally admired in him was that in all 
the virtues he showed himself perfect and that, with the aid of divine 
grace to which he responded to his utmost, he performed all his actions 
with all the perfection that can be imagined." 55 This kind of exhortato- 
ry language can instill a sense that one can never accomplished enough, 
and that more needs always to be done. 

Jesuit economist Gerard L. Stockhausen perceptively points out 
the danger that arises when doing the magis gets uncritically translat- 
ed into quantitative terms. When this occurs, "we are in danger of us- 
ing the values we have taken on from the world around us to decide 
that more service means working more, working harder, being more ef- 
ficient and more productive," he states. 56 "The danger here is making 
the magis substantive," asserts Stockhausen, "in the sense that we keep 

choosing to engage in more ac- 
tivities and take on more proj- 
When the focus of spiritual e cts because that "more" will 

maturity is on the ongoing g i ve glory to God. Instead, we 

development of the capacity to a re to choose whatever will 

love like God, the danger of self- gi ve God greater glory, and 

absorption is minimized. that may well be to do less or 

_^ «_^^^^^^^^^^_ to'say no to some request rath- 
er than to assume that more is 
always better" (22). He rightly observes that the quantification of such 
notions as magis and majorem Dei gloriam misses "the whole point of the 
Principle and Foundation, namely, that more work or less work, harder 
work or easier work, are among those pairs concerning which we are 
to be indifferent" (22). In discussing the topic of "Ignatian Spiritual- 
ity versus Leisure," Stockhausen observes that "the Spiritual Exercises 
can seem to be the antithesis of leisure" (9). Acknowledging openly the 

55 Joseph N. Tylenda, S.J., Jesuit Saints and Martyrs: Short Biographies of the Saints, 
Blessed, Venerables, and Servants of God of the Society of Jesus (Chicago: Loyola University 
Press, 1984), 429. 

56 Gerard L. Stockhausen, S.J., "I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time: Jesuits 
and Leisure/' in Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 27, no. 3 (May 1995): 22. 

Ignatian Service * 29 

struggle that many Jesuits have with incorporating and validating lei- 
sure in their lives, he understands the struggle to stem from 

a spirituality ordered to apostolic work . . . that makes leisure problematic for 
most Jesuits (and probably most religious) [who] "have given up their whole 
lives as a holocaust, not just a few hours. Their work is service, it is ministry. So 
when more is asked of them, the appropriate response is to give generously. For 
this point of view, taking time for themselves sounds selfish and un-Jesuit. (8) 

If the praise, reverence, and service of God are understood as using the 
gifts God has given us for the service of God's people, rather than as 
three moments of love in our relationship with God, taking time off 
from work can be difficult to justify. As Stockhausen puts it, "If there 
are people in need of my gifts when I am off engaging in leisure, then 
am I not contradicting the end for which I was made and using those 
gifts poorly?" (9). Honest dialogue among Jesuits themselves and with 
their lay partners about the ^_^ __^ ^^_^ 
challenge of integrating lei- 

sure with their commitment to The li f e that the New Testament 

service seems to be a necessary portrays as the proper response to 
aspect of appropriating the Ig- God ' s generous gift of love is not 

natian vision of generous ser- a matter of pursuing individual 

vice without succumbing to a excellence through perfect 

debilitating imbalance. obedience, but a sincere imitation 

of Christ whose life centered on 
While perfectionism is so love and service of others. 

remarkably widespread that it _^^^^^^^^^__^^^^^^^^^_ 
constitutes a cultural phenom- 
enon, it is reinforced among Christians by a misunderstanding of the 
biblical injunction to "be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect" 
(Mt. 5:48). Through the ages, this exhortation has given the impres- 
sion that holiness consists in being a flawless paragon of virtue. Taken 
out of context, this passage has served as the basis on which Christians 
were urged to strive for individualistic moral perfection, to be flawless 
in thoughts, words, and deeds. If to be true followers of Christ necessi- 
tates embodying the perfection of God, it is no wonder that the pursuit 
of perfection has often resulted in fear, hypocrisy, and legalism. 57 Per- 
fection, defined as being errorless, is a human impossibility, and yet it 
has masqueraded for centuries as the nature of true Christian holiness. 

57 Louis Mebane and Charles R. Ridley, "The Role-Sending of Perfectionism: 
Overcoming Counterfeit Spirituality," Journal of Psychology and Theology 16, no. 4 (1988): 


30 * Wilkie Au 

When this exhortation of Christ is understood in its context, a very dif- 
ferent image of "Christian perfection" emerges. 

This well-known saying is taken from Matthew's Sermon on 
the Mount. It is immediately preceded by a description of God, who 
"makes the sun rise on the evil and the good" (5:45) and castigates those 
who love only people who love them. Thus, the context indicates that 
Jesus exhorts his followers "to imitate God by loving without distinc- 
tion, not by becoming perfect paragons of virtue." 58 In other words, 
we are called to imitate the Father's indiscriminate and inclusive love, 
a love that causes him to let the sun rise on the bad as well as the good 
and to allow the rain to fall on the upright and the wicked alike. Thus, 
____________________ _, _____ the passage is not advocating 

rT . Af . , 7 j. TT the pursuit of perfection as a 

[Father Arrupes] farewell message . . \ , . \. . , , , 

j, JjLi i i << striving for individual moral 
addressed to the members of , .? , ., ,., 
A7 ^ , -, A . J perfection, but rather a lite- 
ms General Congregation on f . ■, . , 
o 4. i o tnoo • * t*. 4.1 long stretching of one s capac- 
September 3, 1983, mst after the f , x , , r 

r . jn . . A . ity to love as God does. 

acceptance of his resignation, J 

reveals the exuberant spirit of The Greek word 

gratitude and love that kept him used by Matthew for "per- 

vibrant, even in the midst of severe feet" is the term teleios. Ac- 
physical decline cording to scripture schol- 

__ ____ _____ ___ mmmmm ^^^^^_ ar William Barclay, the term 

has nothing to do with what 
might be called abstract, philosophical, metaphysical perfection. Rath- 
er, a thing is teleios if it realizes the purpose for which it was planned 
or created. Matthew 5:48 makes clear that Christian holiness consists 
in being Godlike. And "the one thing which makes us like God is the 
love which never ceases to care for [people], no matter what [they] do. 
. . . We enter upon Christian perfection, when we learn to forgive as 
God forgives, and to love as God loves." 59 

When the focus of spiritual maturity is on the ongoing develop- 
ment of the capacity to love like God, the danger of self-absorption is 
minimized. When, however, the Christian ideal is seen as the perfect 
attainment of virtues, a radically different focus emerges. Concentrat- 

58 William A. Spohn, S.J., "The Moral Vision of the Catechism: Thirty Years That 
Did Not Happen/' America 3 (March 1990): 192. 

59 William Barclay, The Gospel of Matthew (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1956), 
175, 177. 

Ignatian Service % 31 

ing on a life of faultless obedience and spotless virtue keeps us focused 
on our own scorecard of good works, rather than on the quality of our 
relationships. The life that the New Testament portrays as the proper 
response to God's generous gift of love is not a matter of pursuing in- 
dividual excellence through perfect obedience, but a sincere imitation 
of Christ whose life centered on love and service of others. 'Too often 
the pursuit of perfection/' writes William Spohn, "becomes more con- 
cerned with the servant than with those who need to be served. In the 
New Testament, gratitude and compassion, not the drive for perfection, 
channel Christian commitment into action." 60 Similarly, in the Spiritual 
Exercises, gratitude and love, not codependency and perfectionism, are 
meant to channel our commitment into action. 

Conclusion: The Self as Instrument 
in God's Hand 

In a kind of inclusio of my own, I would like to end with some obser- 
vations about the Paris Conference on the "Vocation of the Teacher 
in the Ignatian Tradition" that I referred to in the beginning of this 
essay. Parker Palmer, who addressed us on the first day of the gather- 
ing, stressed that the most effective teachers are those who have an in- 
timate relationship with their discipline or field of study. They are peo- 
ple who have been formed and transformed by what they have studied. 
Unlike cartoon characters and their "balloon speech," effective teach- 
ers exhibit no dis-connect between who they are and what they profess. 
Palmer's extensive research in higher education consistently indicates 
that the genuineness or congruence of the teacher as a person is what 
has made the biggest impact on students. 

Palmer's emphasis on the effectiveness of teachers whose behav- 
ior is congruent with their words resonates with what Ignatius believes 
is crucial for apostolic effectiveness. For Ignatius, the best means of fos- 
tering effective service is by becoming persons whose service of others 
springs from heartfelt gratitude and love and is experienced as work 
that links them intimately with Christ as co-workers. In short, it is to be 
an instrument united with God, able to be wielded dexterously in God's 
hands. This Ignatian ideal was well exemplified in the life of the late 
Pedro Arrupe, S.J. After many years of ministry in Japan, Arrupe was 


Spohn, "Moral Vision of the Catechism/' 192. 

32 * Wilkie Au 

called to Rome to lead the Society of Jesus during a tumultuous time 
of conflict and change both in the world and the Church. Despite the 
strenuous nature of his position, he maintained a lively spirit of service 
all throughout his long tenure as Superior General. His farewell mes- 
sage addressed to the members of the General Congregation on Sep- 
tember 3, 1983, just after the acceptance of his resignation, reveals the 
exuberant spirit of gratitude and love that kept him vibrant, even in the 
midst of severe physical decline. 

More than ever, I now find myself in the hands of God. This is what I have 
wanted all my life, from my youth. And this is still the one thing I want. But now 
there is a difference: the initiative is entirely with God. It is indeed a profound 
spiritual experience to know and feel myself so totally in his hands. 

At the end of eighteen years as General of the Society I want to first of all, 
and above all, to give thanks to the Lord. His generosity towards me has been 
boundless. . . 

In these eighteen years my one ideal was to serve the Lord and his Church — 
with all my heart — from beginning to end. 

My call to you today is that you be available to the Lord. Let us put God at 
the center, ever attentive to the voice, ever asking what we can do for his more 
effective service, and doing it to the best of our ability, with love and perfect de- 
tachment. Let us cultivate a very personal awareness of the reality of God. 61 

61 Pedro Arrupe, S.J., as cited in Company: A Magazine of the American Jesuits, 
Spring 1999, 29. 

Past Issues of Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

Available for Sale 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 

1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 

2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 

2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 

3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 

3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 

3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 

3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 

4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 

4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation 

(June 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A 
Symposium (Oct. 1972) 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan-Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 
5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today (Jan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in Gen- 
eral Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 
8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evan- 
gelical Poverty (Mar-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Ex- 
planations (Jan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 

9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out" —Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 
10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Con- 
nolly-Land (Sept. 1978) 
11/1 Clancy, Peeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 
11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 
11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 
11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 
12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small 

Apostolic Communities (Mar. 1980) 
12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 
13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 
13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 
14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (Jan. 1982) 
14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 
14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 
14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 
15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 
15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit 
Charisms (Mar. 1983) 
15/3^4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congrega- 
tion of the Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 
15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nadal and the Jesuit Voca- 
tion (Mar. 1984) 
16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East 

(May 1984) 
16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 
17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 
17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission 

(Mar. 1985) 
17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 
17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 
17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration (Mar. 1986) 
18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 
18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 
19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 
19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 
19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards 

(Jan. 1988) 
20 / 2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 
20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 
20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor 

(Mar. 1989) 
21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 
22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 
22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 
22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 
22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 
22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 
23 / 1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire " (Nov. 1991 ) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/ 1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem -Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The "Vita Christi" ofLudolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the "Spiritual 

Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola" (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but... (or So...)?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church — Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education (Jan. 


33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Persons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am ? " (Sept. 2001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34 / 1 Blake, "City of the Living God " (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 

34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 

34/5 Bireley, The Jesuits and Politics in Time of War (Nov. 2002) 

35/1 Barry Jesuit Spirituality for the Whole of Life (Jan. 2003) 

35/2 Madden /Janssens, The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy (March 2003) 

35/4 Modras, A Jesuit in the Crucible (Sept. 2003) 

35/5 Lucas, Virtual Vessels, Mystical Signs (Nov. 2003) 

36/1 Rausch, Christian Life Communities for Jesuit University Students? (Spring 


36/2 Bernauer, The Holocaust and the Search for Forgiveness (Summer 2004) 

36/3 Nantais, '"Whatever!" Is Not Ignatian Indifference (Fall 2004) 

36/4 Lukacs, The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions (Winter 2004) 

37/1 Smolarski, Jesuits on the Moon (Spring 2005) 

37/2 McDonough, Clenched Fist or Open Hands? (Summer 2005) 

37 / 3 Torrens, Tuskegee Years (Fall 2005) 

37/4 O'Brien, Consolation in Action (Winter 2005) 

38/1 Schineller, In Their Own Words (Spring 2006) 

38/2 Jackson, "Something that happened to me at Manresa" (Summer 2006) 

38/3 Reiser, Locating the Grace of the Fourth Week (Fall 2006) 

38/4 O'Malley, Five Missions of the Jesuit Charism (Winter 2006) 

39/1 McKevitt, Italian Jesuits in Maryland (Spring 2007) 

39/2 Kelly, Loved into Freedom and Service (Summer 2007 

39/3 Kennedy, Music and the Jesuit Mission (Autumn 2007) 

39/4 Creed, Jesuits and the Homeless (Winter 2007) 

40/1 Giard, The Jesuit College (Spring 2008) 

40/2 Au, Ignatian Service (Summer 2008) 



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